Friday, May 20, 2016

New table of elements.

 Dutch scientist Antonius Van den Broek.

In 1914, at the disposal of physicists and chemists have a new way of direct determination of position of the element in the periodic table - English physicist Henry Gwyn Jeffries Moseley found that the root of the frequency of the characteristic X-ray radiation is a linear function of the value of the integer - the atomic number, which coincides with the number of the element in the periodic table. The law allowed Moseley to experimentally confirm correct placement of elements, including the radioactive isotope in the periodic table; also confirmed the validity of the retreat in some cases the order of items on the order of increasing atomic mass (the so-called anomalies of the periodic table). That is the atomic number, which coincides, as suggested by the Dutch scientist Antonius Van den Broek, with the magnitude of the positive charge of the nucleus of an atom, became the basis of the classification of chemical elements. In 1920, the English physicist James Chadwick experimentally determined the nuclear charge of copper silver and platinum, obtaining for them the values ​​of 29.3, 46.3 and 77.4, respectively, which virtually coincided with their atomic numbers 29, 47 and 78. Rutherford in 1911 proposed his nuclear model of the atom in the center of the atom is positively charged nucleus, whose volume is negligible compared to the size of an atom; electrons revolve around the nucleus, the number of which is approximately equal to half the atomic mass of the element. Rutherford model of the atom with the undoubted merits contain important contradiction: in accordance with the laws of classical electrodynamics, an electron orbiting the nucleus should continuously emit electromagnetic radiation, losing energy. As a result, the electron orbit radius was reduced rapidly, and calculated from these representations lifetime of atoms is negligible. However, Rutherford's model was the basis for the creation of a fundamentally new theory, developed in 1913 by the Danish physicist Niels Henrik David Bohr. 

            The model of the atomic nucleus and the table of the elements.
Each subsequent chemical element differs from the previous one in that its core number of protons is increased by one, and increases the number of neutrons, generally several. In the literature it is strange the ratio of neutrons to the number of protons, for any kernel does not explain. The paper proposes a model of the atomic nucleus, explaining this phenomenon. That is at the core is always more neutrons than protons (not counting the very light nuclei). To build a model of the atomic nucleus, we note that while the alpha radioactivity of helium nuclei have approximately equal power. Therefore, the outer shell of the kernel will place all protons with the same number of neutrons. At the same time on the same energy level will be only bosons, however placed on the outer shell of the nucleus alpha particles are. Inside the nucleus arrange the remaining neutrons, whose task will be the weakening of electrostatic repulsion of protons fields. Assuming a spherical nucleus, and the radius of the proton and neutron are approximately the same for each element represents a model of the nucleus, explaining the ratio of neutrons to the number of protons arising from the package kernel atom nucleons. Radioactive decay is probably associated with the compression of the core, as with increasing atomic number element neutrons in the nucleus volume is increasingly weakened radial repulsive force of protons. If the mass of the nucleus to take primary and secondary chemical properties of the atom, in the table of elements atomic weight should be monotonically changed, both horizontally and vertically. Reports of independent authors 2005 Issue №1 173 to construct the table on these grounds, we will have after lutetium and Lawrence left four empty seats to the table reflect the chemical properties of elements - see Table.. 1. Probably, at opening elements is to determine the need for nuclear charge! Currently, a new element is considered open if it has observed appropriate chemical properties. In 1891, James Chadwick via Rozerforda formula estimated the nuclear charges: for platinum - 77.4 for silver - 46.3, copper - 29.3. These results almost coincided with ordinal numbers of these elements in the periodic table. Now, with the discovery of new elements and the charge of the number of electrons is not defined. Perhaps in this lies the failure to reach an island of stability? These new chemical elements are hard to open after 72-75 chemical properties as if filling the inner casing begins protons in the nucleus of the atom from 1 to 4, the electrons corresponding to these protons will be closest to the core. Therefore invited to repeat the experiments Chadwick on platinum or on cheaper lead. If the charge of the nucleus will lead to more than 4 units, you can search for items 72-75. I think that the chemical properties of the 71 will be the same as the number 75. It is shown that the charge of the atomic nucleus is mainly focused on the core surface. If the model of the atomic nucleus shell, when determining the nuclear charge was considered one proton shielding others. In charge of the nucleus of copper Chadwick received equal 29,3- protons still not a lot, silver more protons, and the measured charge is 46.3 which is less than 47, and for platinum experiment gave the result of 77.4 or less than 78. In platinum the core of many protons there are screening more and in my charge in the 82 points more untrue. If this table will take place, we would like to call a group of elements with numbers 72-75 and 108-111, GG Filipenko islands In quantum mechanics, the default in each successive element is increased nuclear charge in the center unit, and is filling spdf-electron configurations. We charge located on the surface of the nucleus, as the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the number such that the core surface should be the protons and neutrons, and within only neutrons, that is formed on a certain surface of the kernel hull. In addition, protons must be repelled, as well as their e-coat attracts. The question can be considered in the calculation of core point and for how long? At the bottom of the periodic table, two lines of the lanthanides and actinides. If they are positioned horizontally in the table, as a table in the proposed physical elements, new elements appear. To new items do not appear, the lanthanides and actinides must be placed vertically, then such a construction, not the table. Construction allows for the periodic table does not have. Lanthanides and actinides must be in vertical columns, rather than "at home" in the bottom two horizontal lines, according to its construction. Properly constructed the periodic structure should look like this: the top part can be left unchanged, but the lanthanides must be placed in a vertical column of 14 elements by lanthanum, below the horizontal line of the 18 elements, then under actinium over 14 elements in the vertical and horizontal line again. On the table is not like. How many open items and they follow each other with increasing charge on the unit in accordance with the rules of the van der Broek. Any gaps in the periodic table is not present. Hence the periodic law is part of a general physical law. P. Read table of elements. Regarding the periodic law and chemical properties Mendeleev absolutely right. The table is constructed according to the Mendeleev periodic law and the rules of the Dutch scientist Van den Broek. Conclusions: When completing the table so that one element followed another according den Broek, and so that the law of Mendeleev, we got 4 new elements numbered 72-75 and probably the same below heavier. And the main thing to receive a charge of nuclei of elements, starting with Hf 4 proton more that will contribute to the development of nuclear reactions in the future. Note charges uranium and plutonium. It has been 25 years since I released for my money the idea of ​​this table in the April issue of the journal Science and Technology for the year 1990. He informs many magazines and research institutes, and universities by regular mail, and then through the Internet. Special thanks Khmelnik Itskovich Solomon, who published my work in the reports of independent authors. DND, 2005.


  1. About chemical elements more see at:

  2. in Russian see at:

  3. in Russian see at: